5G will be the end of the evolution of mobile communication technology?

A new generation of mobile networks will emerge around every ten years or so. The first generation of mobile phones began around 1980 and was still based on analog technology. When the second generation appeared in 1991, the entire mobile network began to embark on the digital track. By 2001, third-generation technology replaced obsolete and cumbersome circuit switching with efficient packet switching. Around 2010, the fourth generation of mobile networks adopted IP technology on a large scale, enabling mobile devices to access the Internet through broadband. Every generation of technological innovation has brought us new frequency bands and made the network faster. Humans are not satisfied with merely transmitting sounds and are increasingly concerned with mobile data.

Recently, wireless operators have begun to think about what should be included in the 5G network. As outside heavyweights (such as Google and Facebook) threaten their good business, a sense of urgency comes along. If the mobile operator can reach an agreement within the 5G network, it is expected to be ready by 2020.

This may be a bit too arrogant, after all, 5G remains to be debated in the next few years. National operators and telecommunications companies believe that 5G is closely related to their own happiness, and policy makers and advocates have to lobby for this technology. However, people still see the fire of hope. Unlike previous generations of mobile technology, 5G is a true global standard – travelers can use their mobile phones anywhere in the world, eliminating the hassle of buying a local SIM card for a mobile phone after arrival.

What do we expect from 5G? At this stage, one of the things we can be sure about 5G is that if it is to meet the needs of society, realize the ubiquitous instant connection. Then, the delay period (ie, reaction time) of the 5G network must reach approximately 1 millisecond. Today, the speed at which two devices turn on communication over a 4G network is about 50 milliseconds, and in a 3G network that is still commonly used, this speed is 500 milliseconds.

Even 4G is not fast enough. For example, under a 4G network, the cloud system cannot transmit emergency instructions to direct unmanned cars through the traffic flow. 4G also does not reach the speed of providing instant language translation in teleconferences, not to mention remotely commanding scalpels in the operation of life-saving injuries. The maximum delay for many instant wireless applications cannot exceed 1 millisecond.

Another key requirement is the data rate, which requires an initial rate of at least 1 Gbps (one gigabit/second) followed by a few Gbps. Only at this speed can mobile users transfer ultra-high resolution (ie 4k and 8k) video to mobile phones and tablets.

Today, 4G networks based on LTE technology can reach speeds of 10 to 100 Mbps (megabits per second) depending on configuration and traffic. Most mobile operators are still implementing their LTE services, and only a few have begun to install state-of-the-art LTE-Advanced devices (ie, true 4G, which corresponds to the immature version of the operator's faked finished product). The highest bit rate of LTE-A is said to have reached 1 Gbps. However, in reality, the rate is more likely to be 250Mbps.

So how much improvement does the 5G network compare with the ideal 4G network? This is hard to say. However, considering the ten times progress we have seen in previous generations, it is more realistic for 5G to download at an average speed of 1 Gbps. If the technology matures over time, it is possible to reach 10 Gbps. This wireless speed is even beyond the limits of the fiber currently used in the Internet and home HDTV.

Carrier aggregation and MIMO antennas, both of which contribute to the dramatic growth of LTE-A. Although not a new technology, both are expected to play an important role in the implementation of 5G.

For carrier aggregation, it only collects the strongest signals in the vicinity, and can collect signals from many local base stations to increase the download speed. These different channels are usually located in different bands in the spectrum, and the frequencies are different, but they can be combined into one thick tube. It can transfer data faster than other possible devices. In LTE-A, up to five component carriers of 20 MHz bandwidth can be combined into a 100 MHz wide carrier.


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